General guidelines for the ERO

By law the ERO has 3 main responsibilities:

1. Providing first aid in case of accidents
2. Limiting and fighting (beginning) fires and limiting their consequences
3. Alerting and evacuating all occupants of a building.

In order to provide good and efficient first aid, one has to follow a number of general guidelines. We always follow the same five important rules, and always in the same order:

1. look for danger;
2. find out what happened and what is wrong with the victim;
3. reassure the victim and provide shelter;
4. call in professional assistance;
5. help the victim where they are.

Look for danger

Danger to the ERO

Do not take unnecessary risks. Remove as much sources of danger as possible, or take precautionary measures. Protect yourself by working hygienically, carefully and safely every time you offer assistance.

Danger to bystanders

Alert bystanders to possible danger. Mark the site of the incident. Make sure the site stands out and poses no danger to others.

Danger to the victim

In case the victim is in a dangerous situation, try moving them as quickly as possible and over the shortest possible distance. Think of: firehazards, collapse, traffic, toxic gases or explosion hazards. A way to move a victim over a short distance is the Rautek procedure.

Find out what happened first and then what is wrong with the victim

To find out what happened:

• ask the victim what happened;
• ask bystanders or witnesses what happened;
• assess the accident scene (silent witnesses).
You now have a first impression of both the situation and the victim. Based on this, determine wich (professional) assistance is needed.
You determine the severity of the situation by using your senses:


• how is the victim positioned;
• is the victim quiet or restless;
• what does the victim's face look like ( normal, pale etc);
• is there an abnormal position of the limbs;
• can you see any liquid- or bloodstains;
• did the victim vomit;
• does the victim react to what you say to them.


• does the victim react well to your questions;
• can you hear normal breathing.


• is the victim sufficiently breathing an in a normal manner.
Sometimes you can smell that the victim has inhaled toxic substances, be extra careful in this case! Proceedaccording to your company's protocol regarding this situation.
All information you collect is important and has to be relayed to professional assistance as soon as they arrive.

Reassure the victim

Victims may often be anxious, frightened or agitated. The positive effect of reassurance is often underestimated. Approach each victim with as much tact and personal commitment as possible. Being able to provide adequate first aid is often dependant on the trust you build in that short amount of time.

Call in professional assistance

Immediately call for a doctor or an ambulance in case a victim has to be handed over to professional caregivers. If possible stay with the victim and have someone else call for help.
In case the reception or security has to call 112, make sure that the alert consists of:
• name of the caller;
• exact location of the accident;
• number of victims/casualties en if possible their age(s);
• nature of the injuries.
While calling for help, put the phone on speaker.
Familiarize yourself with the internal and external alarm procedures in your company or organisation. It is important to follow these procedures within the company. How this is organized within your company, you can find in the company's emergency plan (Bedrijfsnoodplan). It is also important that you know the available means for communication and how to use them properly.
For external emergency services use the national alarm number 1-1-2.

How does 1-1-2 work?

• You call 1-1-2;
• the operator answers with “1-1-2 centrale, wie wilt u spreken: ambulance, brandweer of politie, en in welke plaats?”, you address them in English and they will ask "who do you need, ambulance, fire department or police and in which city?";
• tell them where you are calling from and whether you need an ambulance, fire department or police;
• do not break the connection, you will be connected with the required service in your area;
• the operator will ask you "what is the address of the emergency?", make sure you know the exact location;
• in case you aren't at a specific address, the emergency service can determine your location by a message which
nowadays is sent to them automatically as soon as you call 1-1-2.
• as soon as you provide the address, the emergency services are already on their way! Subsequently more questions
will be asked in order to assess the situation and whether additional assistance is required. Don't worry, this
will not delay de deployement. In fact, it enables them to provide even better assistance.
• answer the questions short and to the point.

Help the victim where they are.

If a victim is responsive and is breathing normally, leave them in the position you found them in. Unnecessary moving them may worsen certain injuries. Therefor it is important to help a victim at the site of the accident. Channging a victim's position may even be life threatening because of an internal injury. If a victim does not respond to gently shaking and loudly speaking to them, then it may be necessary to change their position or move them.
Sometimes circumstances may force the ERO to move the injured victim to another location. Victims who, with your help, are able to move themselves, can easily be brought to safety. When they can't move themselves, you can use the Rautek method.

In case of a fire:

Mind your own safety! Follow the rule "where there is smoke, there is no ERO"

When there is smoke in a closed room, do not enter, but try to call out to possible occupants through the closed door.

In case of an evacuation:

An evacuation follows a strict protocol, tailored to the company/building where the evacuation takes place.

This applies to:
* the way the emergency is called in
* internal communication
* task division
* reception of emergency services

Always keep in mind that people often do not react to emergency signals. Check each and every room for remaining persons. If there are any, direct them to the assembly area.

Answer the questions now

To 3. Non emergency first aid